Feminization biology There are also sex-specific side effects of AAS. Development of breast tissue in males, a condition called gynecomastia which is usually caused by high levels of circulating estradiolmay arise because of increased conversion of testosterone to estradiol by the enzyme aromatase.
Study Design and Intervention We used a computer-generated, blocked randomization, stratified by sex, to allocate participants to 1 of the 2 diet groups. After randomization, 73 participants were assigned to the low-fat group and 75 were assigned to the low-carbohydrate group.
Neither diet included a specific calorie or energy goal. Participants in each group were asked to refrain from changing their physical activity levels during the intervention.
A handbook was given to participants that contained recipes, sample menus for 1 week of food intake at various energy levels, food lists, shopping lists, meal planners, and guides on counting macronutrients and reading nutrition labels. We also provided 1 low-carbohydrate or low-fat meal replacement bar or shake per day to participants in each group for the duration of the study.
Participants met with a dietitian in weekly individual counseling sessions for the first 4 weeks, followed by small group counseling sessions every other week for the next 5 months a total of 10 sessions and monthly for the last 6 months of the intervention period.
Individual sessions generally lasted about 1 hour and included dietary instruction and supportive counseling. Group counseling sessions were held separately for participants in the low-fat and low-carbohydrate groups but followed a common behavioral curriculum.
Staff provided a single set of instructions that were not altered over the course of the study. These common instructions included education on saturated, monounsaturated, and trans fats, with emphasis on the benefits of monounsaturated fats and recommendations to limit or eliminate trans fats.
Data Collection Two hour dietary recalls were obtained from participants at baseline and 3, 6, and 12 months to characterize and monitor individual dietary intake of macronutrients.
One recall reflected consumption on a weekday, and the other reflected consumption on a weekend day. All dietary recalls were obtained by a trained and certified staff member. We calculated dietary nutrient intakes using the food composition tables of the Nutrition Data System for Research Five percent of the dietary recalls were recorded and reviewed for quality control purposes.
A detailed medical history that included assessment of hypertension, diabetes, CVD, medication use, and health behaviors smoking habits, alcohol use, and physical activity was obtained at the screening visit.
We collected anthropometric measures, blood pressure, and blood and urine samples at the screening visit, randomization, and each follow-up visit.
Body weight and height without shoes were measured to the nearest 0. We measured body composition using whole-body bioelectrical impedance analysis RJL Systems while the participant was in a supine position.
We measured blood pressure 3 times with a mercury sphygmomanometer using procedures recommended by the American Heart Association The systolic and diastolic blood pressures were recorded as the first and fifth Korotkoff sounds, respectively. Blood samples were collected after the participant had fasted for 12 hours.
We assayed serum total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein HDL cholesterol, and triglyceride levels according to procedures recommended by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Low-density lipoprotein LDL cholesterol level was calculated using the Friedewald formula We measured plasma glucose, serum creatinine, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein CRP levels using standard methods.
Urinary ketone levels were measured by dipstick at each behavioral session attended and each clinic visit for data collection. A range of adverse effects was assessed using closed-ended questions at each counseling session. Statistical Analysis The power assessment for the primary end point body weight was based on data abstracted from trials similar to this one 414 — Assuming a 2-sided significance level of 0.
Data on baseline characteristics of study participants were expressed as means SDs or numbers percentages. Eleven participants 5 in the low-fat group and 6 in the low-carbohydrate group declined to have their body weight measured at randomization and were not included in the analysis of our primary outcome.
We used t tests or chi-square tests to compare baseline characteristics between the groups. Dietary composition data were expressed as means SDs and compared using t tests. We used a random-effects linear model that was fitted to continuous outcomes primary and secondary.
Each random-effects model consisted of a random intercept and a random slope to adjust for the within-participant correlation among the observed longitudinal data.
To examine the change in each study end point, the model included an indicator variable for time 3, 6, and 12 monthsdiet group, an interaction term for diet group by time, and baseline level of the corresponding end point.
In a post hoc analysis, we also examined the estimated year risk for coronary heart disease CHD by Framingham risk score between groups Blood flow within the hearts of those eating low-carb diets was compared to those eating plant-based diets.
Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. People going on.
Breaking Stalls and Plateaus on the Low-Carbohydrate Diet for Continued Weight Loss.
Dinner with baked or boiled salmon, fried mushrooms, avocado, and lemon. Are you struggling while starting out on a low-carb or keto diet?Do you get headaches, leg cramps, constipation or any of the other more common side effects? Use the information on this page to avoid them – and feel great while losing weight.
There is some evidence that a low-carbohydrate diet may help people lose weight more quickly than a low-fat diet (31,32)—and may help them maintain that weight loss.
For example, POUNDS LOST (Preventing Overweight Using Novel Dietary Strategies), a .
To examine the effects of a low-carbohydrate diet compared with a low-fat diet on body weight and cardiovascular risk factors. Design: A randomized, parallel-group trial. Eating fat does not make you fat! Eating fat with excessive carbohydrates from sugars and refined grains will. Our bodies need fat in so many different ways. Here are 4 side effects of eating 'low fat.'. Blood flow within the hearts of those eating low-carb diets was compared to those eating plant-based diets. Below is an approximation of this video’s audio content. To see any graphs, charts, graphics, images, and quotes to which Dr. Greger may be referring, watch the above video. People going on.
Eating fat does not make you fat! Eating fat with excessive carbohydrates from sugars and refined grains will. Our bodies need fat in so many different ways. Here are 4 side effects of eating 'low fat.'. Sep 02, · Hence, we conducted a randomized, parallel-group trial to examine the effects of a month low-carbohydrate diet compared with a low-fat diet (7–9) on body weight and CVD risk factors in a diverse population with a substantial proportion of black persons with no clinical comorbid conditions.