The Defense Security Cooperation Agency delivered the required certification notifying Congress of this possible sale today. Also included is support equipment, spare parts, publications, software and associated support, and logistical support services, and other related elements of logistical and program support. This proposed sale will contribute to the foreign policy and national security of the United States by improving the security of a major ally that has been, and continues to be, a force for political stability and economic progress in the Asia-Pacific region. Japan will use the enhanced capability as a deterrent to regional threats and to strengthen homeland defense.
Japan Table of Contents Many of the historical and cultural characteristics that shape Japanese arts shape its education as well. Japanese tradition stresses respect for society and the established order and prizes group goals above individual interests.
Sschooling also emphasize diligence, self-criticism, and well-organized study habits. More generally, the belief is ingrained that hard work and perseverance will yield success in life.
Much of official school life is devoted directly or indirectly to teaching correct attitudes and moral values and to developing character, with the aim of creating a citizenry that is both literate and attuned to the basic values of culture and society.
At the same time, the academic achievement of Japanese students is extremely high by international standards. Japanese children consistently rank at or near the top in successive international tests of mathematics.
The system is characterized by high enrollment and retention rates throughout. An entrance examination system, particularly important at the college level, exerts strong influences throughout the entire system. The structure does not consist exclusively of government-sponsored, formal official education institutions.
Private education also forms an important part of the educational landscape, and the role of schools outside the official school system can not be ignored.
A majority of children begin their education by attending preschool, although it is not part of the official system.
The official structure provides compulsory free schooling and a sound and balanced education to virtually all children from grade one through grade nine.
Upper-secondary school, from grades ten through twelve, although also not compulsory, attracts about 94 percent of those who complet lower-secondary school. About one-third of all Japanese upper-secondary school graduates advance to postsecondary education--to full four-year universities, two-year junior colleges, or to other institutions.
Japan is a highly education-minded society. Education is esteemed, and educational achievement is often the prerequisite for success in work and in society at large. Historical Background Japan has had relations with other cultures since the dawn of its history.
Chinese teachings and ideas, for example, flowed into Japan from the sixth to the ninth century. Along with the introduction of Buddhism came the Chinese system of writing and its literary tradition, and Confucianism. By the ninth century, Kyotothe imperial capital, had five institutions of higher learning, and during the remainder of the Heian period, other schools were established by the nobility and the imperial court.
During the medieval periodZen Buddhist monasteries were especially important centers of learning, and the Ashikaga School Ashikaga Gakko flourished in the fifteenth century as a center of higher learning. In the sixteenth and early seventeenth centuries, Japan experienced intense contact with the major European powers.
Jesuit missionaries, who accompanied Portuguese traders, proselytized Christianity and opened a number of religious schools. Japanese students thus began to study Latin and Western music, as well as their own language.
By Japan had been reunified by the Tokugawa regimeand by foreigners had been ordered out of Japan, Christianity banned, and virtually all foreign contact prohibited. The nation then entered a period of isolation and relative domestic tranquillity, which was to last years. When the Tokugawa period began, few common people in Japan could read or write.
Tokugawa education left a valuable legacy: During the Tokugawa period, the role of many of the bushi, or samurai, changed from warrior to administrator, and as a consequence, their formal education and their literacy increased proportionally. Samurai curricula stressed morality and included both military and literary studies.
Confucian classics were memorized, and reading and recitating them were common methods of study. Arithmetic and calligraphy were also studied. Most samurai attended schools sponsored by their han domainsand by the time of the Meiji Restoration ofmore than of the han had established schools.
Some samurai and even commoners also attended private academies, which often specialized in particular Japanese subjects or in Western medicine, modern military science, gunnery, or Rangaku Dutch studiesas European studies were called.
Education of commoners was generally practically oriented, providing basic training in reading, writing, and arithmetic, emphasizing calligraphy and use of the abacus. Much of this education was conducted in so-called temple schools terakoyaderived from earlier Buddhist schools.
These schools were no longer religious institutions, nor were they, bypredominantly located in temples. By the end of the Tokugawa period, there may have been more than 14, such schools. Teaching techniques included reading from various textbooks, memorizing, and repeatedly copying Chinese characters and Japanese script.
After new leadership set Japan on a rapid course of modernization. Realizing from the outset that education was fundamental to nation building and modernization, the Meiji leaders established a public education system to help Japan catch up with the West.
Missions were sent abroad to study the education systems of leading Western countries. These missions and other observers returned with the ideas of decentralization, local school boards, and teacher autonomy. Such ideas and ambitious initial plans, however, proved very difficult to carry out.Higher education in Japan is provided at universities (大学 daigaku), junior colleges (短期大学 tanki daigaku), colleges of technology (高等専門学校 kōtō senmon gakkō) and special training schools and community colleges (専修学校 senshū gakkō).Of these four types of institutions, only universities and junior colleges are strictly considered postsecondary education .
Education: Education, discipline that is concerned with methods of teaching and learning in schools or school-like environments as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of socialization (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships).
Education can be thought of. The Japanese government set on Friday the new goal of cutting to zero the number of elementary school children waiting for receiving after . Which nations have the worldís strongest higher education systems? Find out with the QS Higher Education System Strength Rankings ñ an assessment of overall system strength and flagship university performance, alongside factors relating to access and funding.
Click here for details of the ranking lausannecongress2018.com partnership with.
CHAPTER 1 THE EDUCATIONAL SYSTEM Contents of This Chapter. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM AND ITS ROLE. THE SCHOOL SYSTEM. Educational Reforms in the s and s. The "Grandes Ecoles" are not part of the rest of the University system: they are smaller, they have much more money (they get 30% of the national university budget with only 4% of the students), they are kept apart from the rest of the educational system, they are based on fierce competition of the students among themselves and the schools between themselves.