Slavery, considered essential by plantation owners in the South, was reluctantly permitted in the Constitution, even though it contradicted the universal rights that were enshrined in the Declaration of Independence and violated the Protestant conscience as expressed in the Abolitionist movement. The struggle to establish full rights for all Americans would lead to a bloody Civil War — that abolished slavery, and a hundred years later the Civil Rights Movement led by Martin Luther King, Jr. In the nineteenth century, the U. The nation became a center for invention and technological development; major technologies that America either developed or was greatly involved in improving are electricitythe telephonethe automobiletelevisioncomputersthe Internetnuclear powerair travel, space travel, and genetic engineering.
Suspicion and mistrust had defined U. Competing ideologies and visions of the postwar world prevented U. Truman, however, wanted exactly the opposite. He believed that only industrialization and democracy in Germany and throughout the continent would ensure postwar stability. The Marshall Plan was so successful that factories in Western Europe were exceeding their prewar production levels within just a few years.
In defiance, he followed through on his plan to create a buffer between the Soviet Union and Germany by setting up pro-Communist governments in Poland and other Eastern European countries.
As a result, the so-called iron curtain soon divided East from West in Europe. Stalin also tried unsuccessfully to drive French, British, and American occupation forces from the German city of Berlin by blocking highway and railway access.
Determined not to let the city fall, Truman ordered the Berlin airlift to drop food and medical supplies for starving Berliners. Containment The Berlin crisis, as well as the formation of the Eastern bloc of Soviet-dominated countries in Eastern Europe, caused foreign policy officials in Washington to believe that the United States needed to check Soviet influence abroad in order to prevent the further spread of Communism.
InTruman incorporated this desire for containment into his Truman Doctrine, which vowed to support free nations fighting Communism.
The act reorganized the military under the new office of the secretary of defense and the new Joint Chiefs of Staff. It also created the National Security Council to advise the president on global affairs and the Central Intelligence Agency to conduct espionage.
His Fair Deal domestic policies and support for civil rights, however, divided the Republican Party and nearly cost Truman the election. Nixon and the House Un-American Activities Committee led the earliest Red hunts for Communists in the government, which culminated with the prosecution of federal employee Alger Hiss and the executions of suspected spies Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
Truman initially supported these inquiries and even established a Loyalty Review Board to assist in the search. He eventually began to express concern, however, that the Red hunts were quickly devolving into witch hunts.
Determined not to let Communism spread in East Asia, Truman quadrupled military spending and ordered General MacArthur to retake the southern half of the peninsula. MacArthur succeeded and then pushed the North Koreans almost up to the Chinese border.
Threatened, over a million soldiers from Communist China poured into Korea, forcing MacArthur to retreat back to the 38th parallel, which had originally divided North Korea from South Korea.
When MacArthur began to criticize Truman publicly for his unwillingness to use nuclear weapons in Korea, Truman was forced to fire his top general for insubordination.
United States forces remained entrenched at the 38th parallel for two more years, at the cost of more than 50, American lives. Both sides declared a cease-fire only after the new U. Eisenhower, threatened to use nuclear weapons in The Cold War rivalry between the United States and the Soviet Union lasted for decades and resulted in anti-communist suspicions and international incidents that led the two superpowers to the.
The Cold War is the title given to the period of tension between the two superpowers, the USA and the USSR, which dominated international relations for most of the second half of the 20th century. Cold War, the open yet restricted rivalry that developed after World War II between the United States and the Soviet Union and their respective allies.
The Cold War was waged on political, economic, and propaganda fronts and had only limited recourse to weapons. The term was first used by the.
The Cold War was an ideological war between the two world superpowers, the United States and the Soviet Union, beginning after World War Two. After the war, Germany was left defeated, and Britain and France were left drained and exhausted.
The United States of America—also referred to as the United States, the USA, the U.S., America, or (archaically) Columbia–is a federal republic of 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Each of the 50 states has a high level of local autonomy under the system of federalism. The United States was born as a nation with the Declaration of Independence made by the 13 colonies on July 4, The failure of world leaders to address the largest threats to humanity’s future is lamentable—but that failure can be reversed.
It is two minutes to midnight, but the Doomsday Clock has ticked away from midnight in the past, and during the next year, the world can again move it further from apocalypse.