In supplying a planetary model, IFRS has its ain specific ends of how public companies organize and unwrap their fiscal statements. It tends to be companies that are independent.
This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Intensity modulated radiotherapy IMRT is widely used in clinical applications in developed countries, for the treatment of malignant and non-malignant diseases. This technique uses multiple radiation beams of non-uniform intensities.
The beams are modulated to the required intensity maps for delivering highly conformal doses of radiation to the treatment targets, while sparing the adjacent normal tissue structures. This treatment technique has superior dosimetric advantages over 2-dimensional 2D and conventional 3-dimensional conformal radiotherapy 3DCRT treatments.
It can potentially benefit the patient in three ways.
Conformity is a good thing within limits but there has to be those that refuse to conform to every rule. The balance between conforming and non-conforming is a tight rope of sorts. If there are too many people that do not conform than society does not work. The advantages and disadvantages of conformity. The New Zealand Oxford dictionary defines conformity as accordance with established practise and agreement suitability. Conformity comes with many advantages and disadvantages. Conformity exists so people don’t feel left out. It also comes with many. The answers prior to mine clearly shared some excellent examples of the advantages of people conforming. I hope the following perspective is helpful as well. To best understand the benefits of conformity, it may help to consider situations where there is a lack of conformity and then observe the disadvantages.
First, by improving conformity with target dose it can reduce the probability of in-field recurrence. Second, by reducing irradiation of normal tissue it can minimise the degree of morbidity associated with treatment. Third, by facilitating escalation of dose it can improve local control.
Early clinical results are promising, particularly in the treatment of nasopharyngeal carcinoma NPC. However, as the IMRT is a sophisticated treatment involving high conformity and high precision, it has specific requirements.
Therefore, tight tolerance levels for random and systematic errors, compared with conventional 2D and 3D treatments, must be applied in all treatment and pre-treatment procedures. For this reason, a large-scale routine clinical Advantages and disadvantages of conformity of the treatment modality demands major resources and, in some cases, is impractical.
This paper will provide an overview of the potential advantages of the IMRT, methods of treatment delivery, and equipment currently available for facilitating the treatment modality.
It will also discuss the limitations of the equipment and the ongoing development work to improve the efficiency of the equipment and the treatment techniques and procedures.
Various types of equipment and methods of treatment delivery have been developed to meet different clinical requirements. Metallic beam modifiers were first used in the s to alter the spatial distribution of the intensity of the treatment beams.
These have been an effective means of providing better coverage of dose to the tumours. Beam blocks, wedge filters, and beam compensators have been commonly used in 2-dimensional 2D radiotherapy treatments.
Practical means of delivering intensity modulated beams to achieve 3D dose conformity were not available until the mid s.
It was then that computer controlled linear accelerators with fully motorised multi-leaf collimators MLC were developed. In addition, 3D treatment planning computers with inverse planning algorithms for optimisation of dose were developed. They are commercially available for clinical implementation.
Two other types of IMRT equipment, with different designs, namely Cyberknife [ 5 ] and helical tomotherapy [ 6 ] tool have also been developed and are commercially available. Dosimetrically, IMRT has the ability to deliver the prescription dose to the delineated target volume with precision, while sparing the adjacent normal tissue structures.
This function is like dose painting or dose sculpting [ 7 ]. However, such a degree of precision and conformity with dose may not be realised clinically. This is because of uncertainties in delineating and contouring the target and normal tissue structures, treatment set up errors, patient and organ movements, geometrical tolerance of the treatment machine, and dosimetry calculation errors.
The purpose of this paper is to review the dosimetry advantages of the IMRT, clinical benefits that have been achieved so far, issues related to clinical implementation of the technique, and limitations of current equipment and clinical procedures in large scale implementation of the modality as a standard treatment.
This paper will also discuss the research and development work being conducted to resolve some of these problems. Numerous dosimetry studies on linear accelerator based IMRT treatments of different anatomical sites have been reported, and all of them show that IMRT can have definite dosimetry advantages over 2D and conventional 3DCRT treatments [ 8 - 18 ].
Whether the dosimetric advantages of IMRT can be realised clinically would depend on a number of factors, including a the accuracy in localisation and delineation of the tumour and the adjacent critical tissue structures, b understanding of the optimum relationship between dose and response for the individual tumour, and c delivery of the prescription doses according to the treatment plans.
These are challenging requirements that need to be met. Some of the research and development work aiming to address these and related issues are discussed below.The potential advantages and disadvantages of cancer therapy using charged particles compared with megavoltage x-rays Other than increasing conformity of the target using physics principles in.
Advantages: Conformity and "sameness" help to stabilize a community. If everybody acts in accordance with the rules and laws, then a sense of security is given to the community.
conformity by adopting only certain provisions or certain provisions as of certain dates. State conformity to federal law has its advantages and disadvantages to both the states and taxpayers.1 In many instances, taxpayers and state administrative personnel can .
Individuality vs conformity in schools essay. Sin categoría noviembre 26, choice questions and answers sports business plan pdf expository essay outline worksheet genetically modified crops advantages and disadvantages pdf human geography definitions. Conformity and its Disadvantages Analysis of How Conformity Gets to Us.
In our society today, the word “conformity” can now be considered a mainstream for many of us. Corporate Financial Reporting is part of corporate reporting that consists of financial statements and accompanying notes that are prepared in conformity with .